1292 - John Balliol was chosen by the
Scottish Nobles to serve as their King. Edward
I is said to have played a part in the Nobles
choosing Balliol, as Edward believed he could
1294 - War breaks out between England and
France that lasts four years.
1295 - Edward I requests John Balliol make
Scottish forces available for the War with
France. Balliol refuses and signs an agreement
with France instead.
1296 March 26th - Balliol forces attack
Carlisle Castle in the northwest of England,
but fail to capture the large Fortress.
1296 March 30th - forces of Edward I
massacre most of the population of Berwick in
1296 April - Edward I forces defeat Scots at
Dunbar and Imprison Balliol in the Tower of
1297 11th September - William Wallace lead
about 15,000 Scots against an English army,
about 30,000 strong, that were on route to the
English held Stirling Castle. The Scots won
that Battle by making the most of the boggy
terrain and old narrow Stirling Bridge.
1298 - William Wallace’s army was defeated
by a massive English army led by Edward I at
Falkirk. Wallace escaped that Battle only to be
captured in Glasgow 5th August 1305, and
Executed in London 18 days later.
1314 - Robert the Bruce's brother, Edward
Bruce, besieged Stirling Castle that was under
the control of English forces.
1314 June - an English army travels north to
confront the Scots forces besieging Stirling
1314 June 23rd - the Scots army led by
Robert the Bruce, engaged the English led by
King Edward II (son of Edward I who died in
1307) in the area of Bannockburn, about 2 miles
south of Stirling Castle.
The Scots army was said to be around 7,000
men, the English about 12,000 men.
The Bruce had selected this area for the
Battle as it was narrow with waterways,
woodland and hills, an ideal area for a smaller
army to have a chance in defeating a larger
The Scots set about rearranging the Terrain
by blocking roads and digging pits with spikes
to help combat the large number of English
The Scots also trained with Schiltroms,
large circles of men with 15ft Pikes, and
positioned themselves where trees gave cover
from English Archers.
On the first day of the Battle, the English
Knights charged the Scots Schiltroms on a
number of occasions, each time resulting in a
large number of English casualties.
During a lull in the Battle, The Bruce took
a Pony down close to the English forces to view
their strength. A young English Knight named
Henry De Bohun recognized The Bruce, so set off
on his Heavy Horse with his Lance aimed at the
The Bruce held his ground until the last
second, then turned his Pony to the side, stood
up on his stirrups, and split open the young
Knight's head with a mighty blow from his
The following day, the English Cavalry began
another series of charges at the Scots
Schiltroms. These attacks again led to a large
number of English casualties.
The English Archers managed to get into a
good position during the Cavalry attacks, but
began hitting their own Knights as well as the
Before the Scots could advance to finnish
off the English, The Bruce gave the order for
his Cavalry to charge out Woodlands to scatter
the English Archers.
With the English Archers fleeing the Scots
Cavalry, the English Cavalry retreating, and
Scots forces pursuing the English troops,
Edward II was led from the Battlefield for his
The English forces that survived, set off
back to England.
The Scots soon took control of Stirling
Castle and demolished its defenses so the
English could not use it as a stronghold
The Scotland / England war continued for a
further 14 years, until the treaty of Edinburgh
was signed 17th March 1328. The Bruce then
became King of an Independent Scotland.
The Bruce died at Cardross, probably from
leprosy 7th June 1329.
1932 - the National Trust for Scotland
acquired land at the Battle of Bannockburn.
1960 and 1965 - more land was acquired for
the creation of a Visitor Centre and
1960s - the original Visitor Centre is
1964 - the Memorial and Statue of King
Robert the Bruce are built.
2014 - the new Visitor Centre is built.