Inventions through History
Below is a list of Inventions that led to the
World we see today.
Battery Powered Cars built
from 1884 in London, first Modern Battery Powered
Cars 2010, but still being researched.
Battery Powered Cars work by Electricity being
stored in Batteries, with the Batteries then used to
power an Electric Motor.
Electric Cars were built in London in the 1880s,
seen as the way of the future as they had no
emissions. Cities at that time were polluted with
Coal powering most Industries, and used in Homes.
The Mass Production of Petrol Cars began 1908, and
Crude Oil was discovered in the Middle East in 1908,
giving a seemingly endless supply of inexpensive
Petrol, more or less ending the evolution of Battery
1996 to 1999 - as Climate Change and Smog in
Cities became a serious concern, General Motors built
over 1,000 EV1 Electric Cars for
Lease in Califoria / USA, normally to famous people
such as the actor Tom Hanks, with most people giving
them great reviews.
2002 - General Motors repossessed all their EV1s,
leading to claims Petroleum Companies had forced them
to put an end to their Battery Powered Cars. A
Film was even made
about how the Cars were killed off.
2010 - the Nissan Leaf was the first mass produced
Car powered by Batteries. Most other Car
Manufacturers have since followed.
The main problem for Manufacturers is to produce
Batteries that give More Range, Charge Faster, Last
Longer, and are Less Expensive, something that is
proving extremely difficult.
Countries also have to produce more Green Energy
to Charge the Batteries, and install millions of
A Scramjet is a Jet Engine with no moving parts.
It works by air entering the front of the Engine,
which is large, then being compressed as it passes
through the Engine which gets narrower in the middle.
Fuel is then added to the compressed air, giving
Scramjet's only work after they are traveling at
high speeds, when air is being forced through the
engine, cannot fly from a standstill.
A remote controlled NASA Scramjet reached 9 times
the speed of sound in 2011 before crashing. They are
expected to be able to reach 24 times the Speed of
The fastest Aircraft before this was the Lockheed
SR-71 "Blackbird" spy
plane that traveled about 3 times the Speed of
This type of propulsion has been attempted from
the early 1900s with little success. A Scramjet
aircraft is expected to cut the flight time between
London and Australia from 21 hours to under 2
Optical Fiber 1980.
Optical Fibers are now widely used in Fiber-Optic
communications, allowing transmission of data over
longer distances at higher bandwidths than other
forms of communication before, such as Wires.
Telephones and the Internet are the most well
known users of this invention. Although the
transmitting of data by Fibre Optics has been tested
for over 100 years, it was not until 1980 that
companies began using Fibre Optics to link large
Nobody has been credited with inventing the modern
day Fibre Optic system. Claims have been made the
system was back-engineered from crashed Alien
Mobile Phones first
Landline Phones 1860, first public Phone Boxes 1881,
first Mobile Phones 1983, first Smart Phones
The first Mobile Phones were sold from 1973, large
devices with aerials that had to be pulled up.
1996 - the first of the small Mobile Phones were
sold, some about 3 inches high, easily fitting in
pockets, and easily lost.
2007 - the first Smart Phones were sold, and by
2020, about 50% of people on the Internet were using
Smart Phones, leading to a fall in sales of
2014 - the first of the Plus size Smart Phones are
sold, big enough to allow viewing Websites and Gaming
at a reasonable size, and just fit in pockets.
Personal Computers early
1970s/ Internet born 1987/ first Computers that can
be compared to today's late 1990s.
Personal Computers were developed from the early
1970s by companies such as Hewlett Packard, Xerox,
Apple, Macintosh, IBM, Microsoft and Comodore.
In 1984, Apple Computers introduced the first
reliable and affordable Mouse for Point and Click
navigation through the Computer. This allowed the
mass production of user friendly Point and Click
software, leading to the Personal Computers seen
This first Apple Computer was extremely limited
with only 128 KB of Ram Memory (Fast Memory). If a
Computers Ram is overloaded, it Crashes. By the early
1990s, Ram Memory began increasing from 2 MB, about
20 times that of the first Apple. By the early 2000s,
computers were appearing with 128 MB of Ram, that is
still enough for some people today, although easily
overloaded to a crash using high data programs.
Ram has steadily increased to 20 GB in 2010s, that
is the equivalent of 20,480 MB. I GB of Ram can cope
easily with Video Editing, so it seems Ram reaching
20 GB has been for use in Gaming Computers, that seem
never to have enough memory.
1997 - WiFi began being sold to allow Computers,
Laptops, and Tablets to be used around a home without
a Direct Connection. Wifi Speeds improved over the
Late 1980s - the first Compact Laptops were being
sold, mainly to Business people. By the early 2000s,
new Batteries, WiFi, and Compact Hardware, meant
Laptops could do almost anything a Computer could,
leading to some people using them as their Home
1989 - the first Tablet Computers were produced.
By the early 2000s, Tablets were becomming really
popular, as by that time, they could be used to surf
the Internet and play Games as fast as many
Computers, also, less expensive than a Computer.
2007 - the first Smart Phones were being sold, and
by 2020, about 50% of people using the Internet were
doing so by Smart Phones or Tablets, leading to a
crash in sales of Computers and Laptops.
Game Playing Machines
first large machines for Arcades 1950s, first home
The first Game Playing Machines were large, mainly
used in Arcades and Pubs, such as Asteroids.
1975 - the Atari Pong was the first Home Game
Console, followed by Colour-TV Game in 1977, Atari
1986, Sega Genesis 1988, PlayStation 1994, Nintendo
1996, Dreamcast 1998, Xbox 2005, and Wii 2006.
Top Classic Games include: Space Invaders 1978,
Pac-Man 1980, Donkey Kong 1981, Alien 1982, Super
Mario Bros 1985, Street Fighter 1987, Lemmings 1991,
Tomb Raider 1996, Sonic the Hedgehog 1991, Grand
Theft Auto 1997, The Legend of Zelda 1998.
Top Games Today
include: Minecraft 2009, Call of Duty 2009,
PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds 2017, Resident Evil
Most top Games run on Home Computers as well.
Devices . Classic Games
Integrated Circuit / Silicon Chip
/ Micro Chip 1960s/1970s.
An Integrated Circuit is an Electronic Circuit
manufactured into a thin form of semiconductor
material, now normally Silicon.
Integrated Circuits are now used in virtually
every Electronic device, making them more reliable,
less expensive, and a fraction of the size.
Although the Integrated Circuit was being pursued
from the early 1900s, it wasn't until the 1960s/1970s
that the invention was mass produced for public
The first hand held Calculator was developed in
1967, first Digital Watch in 1974, with Computers and
Games soon following.
Jack Kilby, who produced the first hand held
Calculator, is probably the most recognized inventor
of the Integrated Circuit, receiving the Nobel Prize
in Physics in the year 2000.
Space Travel first
Satellite 1957, first human 1961, first Moon landing
1608 - the first Telescope was invented, allowing
Humans to document Planets and Stars.
1944 - Rockets used during World War Two were
reaching the Edge of Space.
1957 - the first Satellite to Orbit the Earth was
the Soviet built Sputnik 1.
1961 - the first Human Space flight was Vostok 1,
with the Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin.
1969 - The first Landing on the Moon was the US
built Apollo 11, with Commander Neil Armstrong the
first Man to Walk on the Moon.
1971 - the first Space Station was launched by the
1972 - the last US Spacecraft Landed on the Moon,
with Eugene Cernan the last Person the Walk on the
2018 - Virgin Galactic reached an altitude of 82.7
kilometres (51.4 mi), entering outer space. There are
now a number of Private Companies like this looking
at taking Passengers into Space for about £250,000
Nuclear Power first
Nuclear Bomb 1940s, first Nuclear Power Station
1942 - The first Nuclear Reactor was built in the
USA to make Nuclear Bombs.
1945 - first Nuclear Bomb was was test exploded in
New Mexico / USA. Two Nuclear Bombs were then dropped
on Japan later that year to end the Second World
1951 - Electricity was first produce from a
Nuclear Reactor in Idaho / USA, with countries around
the World soon following.
1955 - the first Nuclear Powered Submarine entered
service, with the USS Enterprise
Aircraft Carrier completed for the US Navy in 1962,
the first of many Nuclear Powered Warships.
1956 - the US tested a Nuclear Powered
Aircraft, showing Nuclear Power was unsuitable
Nuclear Power is clean energy, but extremely
dangerous, as if a Plant blows up, it devastates a
vast area around for hundreds of years through
The high cost of producing these Plants, high cost
of disposing the old Radioactive Fuel, and high cost
of maintaining the Plants for hundreds of years after
they close, makes Nuclear Power one of the most
expensive ways to produce Electricity.
Nuclear Fuel is made from Uranium, mainly mined
in Australia, Canada and Kazakhstan.
Television 1923/ first
regular broadcasts 1929/ colour TVs from 1950s.
The Scottish engineer John Logie Baird designed
the world's first working Television in 1923. His
first public demonstration took place in Selfridges
department store in London in March 1925.
The BBC began the World's first regular Television
broadcasts in January 1929, using Baird's system.
Mass production of TVs between 1945 and 1956, saw
them appear in most reasonably well off homes.
Colour TVs were sold in the US from the 1950s, and
in the UK and Europe from the 1960s, although it was
the 1970s before they were commonplace, 28 to 32 inch
screens were seen as large then.
The first Remote Controls emerged in 1956.
The first consumer Videocassette Recorders were
launched in 1971.
The first DVD Players were sold around the world
from 1996 to 1999.
The first large Plasma TVs were manufactured in
1997 with 42 inch High Definition (HD) screens.
By 2004, large Liquid-Crystal display (LCD) HD TVs
were being sold as an alternative to Plasma TVs. By
2005, Plasma and LCD's had put and end to the old
Tube type TVs.
2013 - the first LCD, Ultra HD TVs were sold, also
known as 4K TVs, leading to the end of Plasma
2019 - the first 8K TVs were sold, leading to even
Powered Aircraft 1903/
first passenger service 1919/ first direct
Transatlantic passenger service 1958.
The first successful, powered, piloted Flight took
place in 1903 by the Wright Brothers. This first
Flight lasted just 12 seconds.
World War One (1914-1919) saw increased
development of Aircraft with speeds being achieved by
the end of the War at over 100 mph, carrying guns and
Britain and France introduce one of the
first Passenger services in 1919, this being across
the English Channel between London and
World War Two (1939-1945) saw Aircraft speed
increase to over 400 mph.
Jet Engines were being tested in Fighter Aircraft
in the last year of World War Two, capable of
reaching over 500 mph.
The British built De Havilland Comet became the
first Jet powered Passenger Service, flying between
London and South Africa in 1952. The Comet also
provided the first direct Transatlantic Passenger
Service, this between London and New York in
Diesel Engine 1893.
The German inventor Rudolph Diesel unveiled his
first efficient Diesel Engine in 1893.
This Engine works by the Piston pushing up
compressing the air at the top of the Chamber making
it hot, then Diesel is Injected into the hot air at
the top of the Chamber to make the Combustion, this
pushing the Piston back down. There are no Spark
Plugs in a Diesel Engine.
Diesel can be obtained from Refined Crude Oil
pumped out of the ground, and from Vegetable Oils,
but making Diesel for Plants pushes up the price of
The first Boat powered by a Diesel Engine was in
The first Submarine to use Diesel Engines was in
1904. The Diesel Engine was used on the surface and
electric power when submerged.
The first Car produced with a Diesel Engine was a
Citroen in 1933.
Most of the worlds largest Ships, and largest
Trucks, are now powered by massive Diesel
The first fairly large Transatlantic Liner to be
powered by Diesel Engines was the 573 feet long
SS Gripsholm that
entered service in 1925.
Petrol / Gasoline Engine
1887/ large scale production of Cars for the Public
Gottlieb Daimler invented what is recognized as
the prototype of the modern Gas/Petrol Engine.
His first Engine had a vertical cylinder with
Gasoline injected through a carburetor. He patented
the Engine design in 1887.
Daimler first built a two-wheeled vehicle named
the Reitwagen (Riding Carriage), then a year later,
built the world's first four-wheeled Motor
Petrol / Gasoline is obtained from refining Crude
Oil pumped out of the ground. Ethanol produced from
Plants can also run Petrol Engines, but this would
push up the price of food.
A Petrol Engine works with a mixture of
Petrol/Gasoline and Air fed into the top of a
cylinder as a Piston is close to the top, a Spark is
then sent into the mixture to create an Explosion to
push the Piston down.
Petrol engines are normally used in cars, motor
bikes and lawnmowers, as they give a high
Diesel Engines tend to last longer and get more
miles to the gallon, but have less performance and
produce more toxic emissions.
The first affordable mass produced Petrol Engine
Cars where the Model T Ford that went on
sale in 1908.
Electricity 1800/ first
Light Bulbs 1880s/ first Electric Sockets 1910s
Although Electricity had been known about for
centuries, Alessandro Volta was the first to make use
of it by manufacturing Batteries from 1800.
Light Bulbs were invented in the late 1870s, but
were not common in Homes until the 1930s.
The first Electric Kettle was seen in 1886, first
Electric Iron in 1881, first thermostatically
controlled Electric Iron in the 1920s, first Electric
Hoovers in the 1930s.
Although Electric Fridges were being mass produced
from 1927, Electric Fridges and Washing Machines did
not become common in working class Homes until the
1960s, due to their high cost.
The first Florescent Lamps were installed in
Factories in 1904.
Compact Florescent Light Bulbs (CFLs), also known
as Energy-Saving Light Bulbs, were introduced in the
Original Light Bulbs were supposed to have been
fazed out by 2012.
The first Windmills for producing Electricity were
built from 1888, with Global Warming leading to a
vast increase in Windmills being built around the
World in the early 2000s. Scotland was probably the
first Country to produce enough Electricity from its
Windmills for all its needs in 2016, this being when
the weather is ideal.
Steam Engine 1698/
Passenger Steam Trains from 1807/ London to Aberdeen
line opened in 1850 covering 500 miles.
Although Inventors had been experimenting with
Steam Power for centuries, it was Thomas Savery who
built the first practical device in 1698 for pumping
water out of Coal Mines.
In 1765, James Watt patented a new design of Steam
Engine that became the design used over the following
200 years plus.
The first Steamboat entered the water in 1787 when
John Fitch made the first successful trial of a
forty-five-foot Steamboat on the Delaware River in
the USA. The largest Liners of the early 1900s were
all powered by Steam Engines, Piston first, then
The first Steam Train ran in 1804 near Merthyr
Tydfil in Wales. The first Passenger Service began
from Swansea in Wales in 1807. The first Steam Trains
began running in the US in 1830.
By 1869, Steam Trains could travel between the
East and West coast of the US by the transcontinental
Central Pacific Railroad.
The first Diesel powered Trains began entering
service in 1912, but took until the 1950s before they
really began taking over from Steam Trains.
Diesel Engines were installed in fairly large
ships from the 1920s.
The Wheel around 3,500
The first Wheeled Vehicles seem to have appeared
about 3,500 BC, around the Mediterranean and in
The earliest Wheels were simple wooden disks with
a hole drilled for the axle.
The first wooden spoked Wheels were manufactured
around 2,000 BC, with the wooden spoked Wheel design
lasting until the 1870s.
From the 1870s, wire and steel Wheels with
Pneumatic Tyres were manufactured and improved to
what can be seen today.
The largest Vehicle Wheels so far
are about 14 feet in diameter including Tyres.
around 10,200 BC
The Domestication of Animals is thought to have
began during the Neolithic Period that started around
10,200 BC. Their primitive agriculture lead to
Farming as can be seen today, with Animals reared for
food, and also used for pulling farming
The first working Elephants were used in India
around 3,300 BC.
The domestication of Horses is believed to have
began around 2,500 BC.
Horses then remained the main working Animal until
replaced by Motor Vehicles in the early 1900s. Some
Heavy Horses were
still being used in Farming and Industry until the
Tools / Weapons around 5
The use of Objects as Weapons and Tools has been
noted among Chimpanzees, this leading to speculation
the first Humans, around 5 Million BC, would also
have used Weapons.
The earliest Tools and Weapons were made of wood
and stone, and later, a combination of wood and
The earliest metal Weapons and Tools were made of
Copper during the Copper Age around 3,300 BC,
followed by the Bronze Age around 1,700 BC, and Iron
Age 1,300 BC.