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Inventions through History

Below is a list of Inventions that led to the World we see today.

Battery Powered Cars built from 1884 in London, first Modern Battery Powered Cars 2010, but still being researched.

Battery Powered Cars work by Electricity being stored in Batteries, with the Batteries then used to power an Electric Motor.

Electric Cars were built in London in the 1880s, seen as the way of the future as they had no emissions. Cities at that time were polluted with Coal powering most Industries, and used in Homes.

The Mass Production of Petrol Cars began 1908, and Crude Oil was discovered in the Middle East in 1908, giving a seemingly endless supply of inexpensive Petrol, more or less ending the evolution of Battery Powered Cars.

1996 to 1999 - as Climate Change and Smog in Cities became a serious concern, General Motors built over 1,000 EV1 Electric Cars for Lease in Califoria / USA, normally to famous people such as the actor Tom Hanks, with most people giving them great reviews.

2002 - General Motors repossessed all their EV1s, leading to claims Petroleum Companies had forced them to put an end to their Battery Powered Cars. A Film was even made about how the Cars were killed off.

2010 - the Nissan Leaf was the first mass produced Car powered by Batteries. Most other Car Manufacturers have since followed.

The main problem for Manufacturers is to produce Batteries that give More Range, Charge Faster, Last Longer, and are Less Expensive, something that is proving extremely difficult.

Countries also have to produce more Green Energy to Charge the Batteries, and install millions of Charging Points.


Scramjet being developed.

A Scramjet is a Jet Engine with no moving parts. It works by air entering the front of the Engine, which is large, then being compressed as it passes through the Engine which gets narrower in the middle. Fuel is then added to the compressed air, giving propulsion.

Scramjet's only work after they are traveling at high speeds, when air is being forced through the engine, cannot fly from a standstill.

A remote controlled NASA Scramjet reached 9 times the speed of sound in 2011 before crashing. They are expected to be able to reach 24 times the Speed of Sound.

The fastest Aircraft before this was the Lockheed SR-71 "Blackbird" spy plane that traveled about 3 times the Speed of Sound.

This type of propulsion has been attempted from the early 1900s with little success. A Scramjet aircraft is expected to cut the flight time between London and Australia from 21 hours to under 2 hours.


Optical Fiber 1980.

Optical Fibers are now widely used in Fiber-Optic communications, allowing transmission of data over longer distances at higher bandwidths than other forms of communication before, such as Wires.

Telephones and the Internet are the most well known users of this invention. Although the transmitting of data by Fibre Optics has been tested for over 100 years, it was not until 1980 that companies began using Fibre Optics to link large Cities.

Nobody has been credited with inventing the modern day Fibre Optic system. Claims have been made the system was back-engineered from crashed Alien Spacecraft.


Mobile Phones first Landline Phones 1860, first public Phone Boxes 1881, first Mobile Phones 1983, first Smart Phones 2007.

The first Mobile Phones were sold from 1973, large devices with aerials that had to be pulled up.

1996 - the first of the small Mobile Phones were sold, some about 3 inches high, easily fitting in pockets, and easily lost.

2007 - the first Smart Phones were sold, and by 2020, about 50% of people on the Internet were using Smart Phones, leading to a fall in sales of Computers.

2014 - the first of the Plus size Smart Phones are sold, big enough to allow viewing Websites and Gaming at a reasonable size, and just fit in pockets.


Personal Computers early 1970s/ Internet born 1987/ first Computers that can be compared to today's late 1990s.

Personal Computers were developed from the early 1970s by companies such as Hewlett Packard, Xerox, Apple, Macintosh, IBM, Microsoft and Comodore.

In 1984, Apple Computers introduced the first reliable and affordable Mouse for Point and Click navigation through the Computer. This allowed the mass production of user friendly Point and Click software, leading to the Personal Computers seen today.

This first Apple Computer was extremely limited with only 128 KB of Ram Memory (Fast Memory). If a Computers Ram is overloaded, it Crashes. By the early 1990s, Ram Memory began increasing from 2 MB, about 20 times that of the first Apple. By the early 2000s, computers were appearing with 128 MB of Ram, that is still enough for some people today, although easily overloaded to a crash using high data programs.

Ram has steadily increased to 20 GB in 2010s, that is the equivalent of 20,480 MB. I GB of Ram can cope easily with Video Editing, so it seems Ram reaching 20 GB has been for use in Gaming Computers, that seem never to have enough memory.

1997 - WiFi began being sold to allow Computers, Laptops, and Tablets to be used around a home without a Direct Connection. Wifi Speeds improved over the following years.

Late 1980s - the first Compact Laptops were being sold, mainly to Business people. By the early 2000s, new Batteries, WiFi, and Compact Hardware, meant Laptops could do almost anything a Computer could, leading to some people using them as their Home Computers.

1989 - the first Tablet Computers were produced. By the early 2000s, Tablets were becomming really popular, as by that time, they could be used to surf the Internet and play Games as fast as many Computers, also, less expensive than a Computer.

2007 - the first Smart Phones were being sold, and by 2020, about 50% of people using the Internet were doing so by Smart Phones or Tablets, leading to a crash in sales of Computers and Laptops.


Game Playing Machines first large machines for Arcades 1950s, first home Games 1970s.

The first Game Playing Machines were large, mainly used in Arcades and Pubs, such as Asteroids.

1975 - the Atari Pong was the first Home Game Console, followed by Colour-TV Game in 1977, Atari 1986, Sega Genesis 1988, PlayStation 1994, Nintendo 1996, Dreamcast 1998, Xbox 2005, and Wii 2006.

Top Classic Games include: Space Invaders 1978, Pac-Man 1980, Donkey Kong 1981, Alien 1982, Super Mario Bros 1985, Street Fighter 1987, Lemmings 1991, Tomb Raider 1996, Sonic the Hedgehog 1991, Grand Theft Auto 1997, The Legend of Zelda 1998.

Top Games Today include: Minecraft 2009, Call of Duty 2009, PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds 2017, Resident Evil 2019.

Most top Games run on Home Computers as well.

Devices . Classic Games

Integrated Circuit / Silicon Chip / Micro Chip 1960s/1970s.

An Integrated Circuit is an Electronic Circuit manufactured into a thin form of semiconductor material, now normally Silicon.

Integrated Circuits are now used in virtually every Electronic device, making them more reliable, less expensive, and a fraction of the size.

Although the Integrated Circuit was being pursued from the early 1900s, it wasn't until the 1960s/1970s that the invention was mass produced for public use.

The first hand held Calculator was developed in 1967, first Digital Watch in 1974, with Computers and Games soon following.

Jack Kilby, who produced the first hand held Calculator, is probably the most recognized inventor of the Integrated Circuit, receiving the Nobel Prize in Physics in the year 2000.

Integrated_circuit . Timeline

Space Travel first Satellite 1957, first human 1961, first Moon landing 1969

1608 - the first Telescope was invented, allowing Humans to document Planets and Stars.

1944 - Rockets used during World War Two were reaching the Edge of Space.

1957 - the first Satellite to Orbit the Earth was the Soviet built Sputnik 1.

1961 - the first Human Space flight was Vostok 1, with the Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin.

1969 - The first Landing on the Moon was the US built Apollo 11, with Commander Neil Armstrong the first Man to Walk on the Moon.

1971 - the first Space Station was launched by the Soviets.

1972 - the last US Spacecraft Landed on the Moon, with Eugene Cernan the last Person the Walk on the Moon.

2018 - Virgin Galactic reached an altitude of 82.7 kilometres (51.4 mi), entering outer space. There are now a number of Private Companies like this looking at taking Passengers into Space for about £250,000 per person.


Nuclear Power first Nuclear Bomb 1940s, first Nuclear Power Station 1951.

1942 - The first Nuclear Reactor was built in the USA to make Nuclear Bombs.

1945 - first Nuclear Bomb was was test exploded in New Mexico / USA. Two Nuclear Bombs were then dropped on Japan later that year to end the Second World War.

1951 - Electricity was first produce from a Nuclear Reactor in Idaho / USA, with countries around the World soon following.

1955 - the first Nuclear Powered Submarine entered service, with the USS Enterprise Aircraft Carrier completed for the US Navy in 1962, the first of many Nuclear Powered Warships.

1956 - the US tested a Nuclear Powered Aircraft, showing Nuclear Power was unsuitable for Aircraft.

Nuclear Power is clean energy, but extremely dangerous, as if a Plant blows up, it devastates a vast area around for hundreds of years through Radiation Poisoning.

The high cost of producing these Plants, high cost of disposing the old Radioactive Fuel, and high cost of maintaining the Plants for hundreds of years after they close, makes Nuclear Power one of the most expensive ways to produce Electricity.

Nuclear Fuel is made from Uranium, mainly mined in Australia, Canada and Kazakhstan.


Television 1923/ first regular broadcasts 1929/ colour TVs from 1950s.

The Scottish engineer John Logie Baird designed the world's first working Television in 1923. His first public demonstration took place in Selfridges department store in London in March 1925.

The BBC began the World's first regular Television broadcasts in January 1929, using Baird's system.

Mass production of TVs between 1945 and 1956, saw them appear in most reasonably well off homes.

Colour TVs were sold in the US from the 1950s, and in the UK and Europe from the 1960s, although it was the 1970s before they were commonplace, 28 to 32 inch screens were seen as large then.

The first Remote Controls emerged in 1956.

The first consumer Videocassette Recorders were launched in 1971.

The first DVD Players were sold around the world from 1996 to 1999.

The first large Plasma TVs were manufactured in 1997 with 42 inch High Definition (HD) screens.

By 2004, large Liquid-Crystal display (LCD) HD TVs were being sold as an alternative to Plasma TVs. By 2005, Plasma and LCD's had put and end to the old Tube type TVs.

2013 - the first LCD, Ultra HD TVs were sold, also known as 4K TVs, leading to the end of Plasma TVs.

2019 - the first 8K TVs were sold, leading to even clearer screens.


Powered Aircraft 1903/ first passenger service 1919/ first direct Transatlantic passenger service 1958.

The first successful, powered, piloted Flight took place in 1903 by the Wright Brothers. This first Flight lasted just 12 seconds.

World War One (1914-1919) saw increased development of Aircraft with speeds being achieved by the end of the War at over 100 mph, carrying guns and bombs.

Britain and France introduce one of the first Passenger services in 1919, this being across the English Channel between London and Paris.

World War Two (1939-1945) saw Aircraft speed increase to over 400 mph.

Jet Engines were being tested in Fighter Aircraft in the last year of World War Two, capable of reaching over 500 mph.

The British built De Havilland Comet became the first Jet powered Passenger Service, flying between London and South Africa in 1952. The Comet also provided the first direct Transatlantic Passenger Service, this between London and New York in 1958.


Diesel Engine 1893.

The German inventor Rudolph Diesel unveiled his first efficient Diesel Engine in 1893.

This Engine works by the Piston pushing up compressing the air at the top of the Chamber making it hot, then Diesel is Injected into the hot air at the top of the Chamber to make the Combustion, this pushing the Piston back down. There are no Spark Plugs in a Diesel Engine.

Diesel can be obtained from Refined Crude Oil pumped out of the ground, and from Vegetable Oils, but making Diesel for Plants pushes up the price of food.

The first Boat powered by a Diesel Engine was in 1903.

The first Submarine to use Diesel Engines was in 1904. The Diesel Engine was used on the surface and electric power when submerged.

The first Car produced with a Diesel Engine was a Citroen in 1933.

Most of the worlds largest Ships, and largest Trucks, are now powered by massive Diesel Engines.

The first fairly large Transatlantic Liner to be powered by Diesel Engines was the 573 feet long SS Gripsholm that entered service in 1925.


Petrol / Gasoline Engine 1887/ large scale production of Cars for the Public from 1908.

Gottlieb Daimler invented what is recognized as the prototype of the modern Gas/Petrol Engine.

His first Engine had a vertical cylinder with Gasoline injected through a carburetor. He patented the Engine design in 1887.

Daimler first built a two-wheeled vehicle named the Reitwagen (Riding Carriage), then a year later, built the world's first four-wheeled Motor Vehicle.

Petrol / Gasoline is obtained from refining Crude Oil pumped out of the ground. Ethanol produced from Plants can also run Petrol Engines, but this would push up the price of food.

A Petrol Engine works with a mixture of Petrol/Gasoline and Air fed into the top of a cylinder as a Piston is close to the top, a Spark is then sent into the mixture to create an Explosion to push the Piston down.

Petrol engines are normally used in cars, motor bikes and lawnmowers, as they give a high performance.

Diesel Engines tend to last longer and get more miles to the gallon, but have less performance and produce more toxic emissions.

The first affordable mass produced Petrol Engine Cars where the Model T Ford that went on sale in 1908.


Electricity 1800/ first Light Bulbs 1880s/ first Electric Sockets 1910s

Although Electricity had been known about for centuries, Alessandro Volta was the first to make use of it by manufacturing Batteries from 1800.

Light Bulbs were invented in the late 1870s, but were not common in Homes until the 1930s.

The first Electric Kettle was seen in 1886, first Electric Iron in 1881, first thermostatically controlled Electric Iron in the 1920s, first Electric Hoovers in the 1930s.

Although Electric Fridges were being mass produced from 1927, Electric Fridges and Washing Machines did not become common in working class Homes until the 1960s, due to their high cost.

The first Florescent Lamps were installed in Factories in 1904.

Compact Florescent Light Bulbs (CFLs), also known as Energy-Saving Light Bulbs, were introduced in the late 1980s.

Original Light Bulbs were supposed to have been fazed out by 2012.

The first Windmills for producing Electricity were built from 1888, with Global Warming leading to a vast increase in Windmills being built around the World in the early 2000s. Scotland was probably the first Country to produce enough Electricity from its Windmills for all its needs in 2016, this being when the weather is ideal.


Steam Engine 1698/ Passenger Steam Trains from 1807/ London to Aberdeen line opened in 1850 covering 500 miles.

Although Inventors had been experimenting with Steam Power for centuries, it was Thomas Savery who built the first practical device in 1698 for pumping water out of Coal Mines.

In 1765, James Watt patented a new design of Steam Engine that became the design used over the following 200 years plus.

The first Steamboat entered the water in 1787 when John Fitch made the first successful trial of a forty-five-foot Steamboat on the Delaware River in the USA. The largest Liners of the early 1900s were all powered by Steam Engines, Piston first, then Steam Turbines.

The first Steam Train ran in 1804 near Merthyr Tydfil in Wales. The first Passenger Service began from Swansea in Wales in 1807. The first Steam Trains began running in the US in 1830.

By 1869, Steam Trains could travel between the East and West coast of the US by the transcontinental Central Pacific Railroad.

The first Diesel powered Trains began entering service in 1912, but took until the 1950s before they really began taking over from Steam Trains.

Diesel Engines were installed in fairly large ships from the 1920s.


The Wheel around 3,500 BC

The first Wheeled Vehicles seem to have appeared about 3,500 BC, around the Mediterranean and in Europe.

The earliest Wheels were simple wooden disks with a hole drilled for the axle.

The first wooden spoked Wheels were manufactured around 2,000 BC, with the wooden spoked Wheel design lasting until the 1870s.

From the 1870s, wire and steel Wheels with Pneumatic Tyres were manufactured and improved to what can be seen today.

The largest Vehicle Wheels so far are about 14 feet in diameter including Tyres.


Domesticated Animals around 10,200 BC

The Domestication of Animals is thought to have began during the Neolithic Period that started around 10,200 BC. Their primitive agriculture lead to Farming as can be seen today, with Animals reared for food, and also used for pulling farming appliances.

The first working Elephants were used in India around 3,300 BC.

The domestication of Horses is believed to have began around 2,500 BC.

Horses then remained the main working Animal until replaced by Motor Vehicles in the early 1900s. Some Heavy Horses were still being used in Farming and Industry until the 1980s.


Tools / Weapons around 5 Million BC

The use of Objects as Weapons and Tools has been noted among Chimpanzees, this leading to speculation the first Humans, around 5 Million BC, would also have used Weapons.

The earliest Tools and Weapons were made of wood and stone, and later, a combination of wood and stone.

The earliest metal Weapons and Tools were made of Copper during the Copper Age around 3,300 BC, followed by the Bronze Age around 1,700 BC, and Iron Age 1,300 BC.


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