England had been at war with Catholic France for
centuries, so the British Parliament did not want a
Catholic King that was friendly with France.
1689 - King James II Stuart was overthrown by his
Protestant daughter Mary and her husband to be
William, who became Mary II and William II. James was
accused of being a Catholic with close ties to
France. He was the last Monarch in Britain accused of
having Catholic beliefs.
This set off the first Jacobite Rising as
supporters of James tried to have him restored to the
throne. James fled to France in 1690, ending that
1714 - the Death of Queen Anne Stuart led to her
Protestant German cousin George I being proclaimed
King by the English Parliament. This led to the
Second Jacobite Rising as the Jacobite's wanted the
Catholic James Francis Stuart to become King. This
Uprising ended in 1716 with James fleeing to
1740s - the Catholic Charles Edward Stuart, son of
James Francis Stuart, was living in France while
England was fighting a number of wars throughout the
world. This led to the French persuading him to start
another Jacobite Rising with their support. France
wanted a Catholic King in Great Britain so as to
prevent the ongoing wars between England and
1745 - Charles Edward Stuart traveled from France
to Glenfinnan in Scotland to start the Third
Jacobite Rising. This Rising ended in 1746 with the
defeat of the Jacobite's at the Battle of
Culloden. Charles fled to France after the
battle. This was the end of the Jacobites.
The British Government built a series of Military
Roads throughout the Highlands of Scotland and a
number of Forts to prevent more Risings. They also
banned Highland Gatherings and the Wearing of
Many Highlanders were forced from their land to
make way for large scale Sheep & Crop Farming,
leading to some moving to Coastal Villages for
Fishing, and some to the Cities. Herring Fishing
around Scotland grew dramaticaly from this time as
people only needed small inexpensive boats to get
A large number of Highlanders were also forced to
relocate to America and Canada.
1783 - America gained Independence from Great
Britain through the American Revolutionary
War, ending Britain sending people to
1788 - Britain began Populating Australia,
including Criminals sent to Penal Colonies in
Australia, with many claiming they had been
fitted up for things like Sheep Steeling. A way of
clearing out trouble makers and providing cheep
labour in Australia. Children were also
deported to work, normally Orphans, or from families
that could not afford to keep them, some with their
parents consent, and some without, just picked up off
Interesting Facts that led to the Jacobite's
1517 - Preaching's by the German Philosopher
Martin Luther led to the Christian Religion splitting
into Catholic and Protestant. Protestant Churches
would then have the Head of their County as as Head
of their Churches instead of the Pope in Rome.
1524 - England turned to Protestantism with King
Henry VIII becoming head of the English Churches.
1560 - Scotland adopted Protestantism.
1603 - James VI Stuart becomes King of England and
Scotland, head of Churches in both countries.
1638 - many Scots signed the National Covenant to
prevent the Stuart Kings from being head of their
Churches. These Scots only accepted Jesus Christ as
head of their Churches. These activists were referred
to as Covenanters with their actions setting off a
series of wars over Religion such as the Bishops
Wars, Wars of the Three Kingdoms, English Civil War,
and Jacobite Risings.
1689 to 1746 - Jacobite Risings were mainly
supported by Clans in the North of Scotland. Some
Clans changed sides over the years, and some had
family fighting on both sides.
Clans would have their Estates and Castles taken
from them if they were on the side that lost, so
often changed sides.
Clan Campbell was one of the most powerful Clans
in Scotland. They normally supported the King and
Government during the Covenanter and Jacobite
1692 - Robert Campbell of Glenlyon commanded the
troops that massacred about 38 members of the
Jacobite MacDonald Clan at Glencoe.
1746 - after the final defeat of the Jacobites,
the King took control of the Estates and Castles of
many Jacobite Clans. In earlier times, most of these
Estates would have been awarded to loyal Clans, but
these Estates were sold to the Highest Bidder.
1689 Jacobite Rising
. 1715 Jacobite Rising
1745 Jacobite Rising