Stirling Page . Stirling
Castle Page . Wallace
Monumnet Page . Area Attractions Click on Map
Hop On Hop Off buses run between The
Battle of Bannockburn Experience, Stirling
Castle, & the Wallace Monument between
4th July & 11th September, 7 times per
Battle of Bannockburn History
1286, the death of the Scottish King
Alexander III, and that of his sole heir, the
four year old Princess Margaret four years
later, led to the English King Edward I
trying to take control of Scotland.
The Scottish nobles where at that time
fighting amongst themselves to see who would
become the next king of Scotland.
1292, John Balliol was chosen by the
Scottish Nobles to serve as their King.
Edward I is said to have played a part in the
nobles choosing Balliol, as Edward believed
he could control Balliol.
1294, war breaks out between England and
France that lasts four years.
1295, Edward I requests John Balliol make
Scottish forces available for the war with
France. Balliol refuses and signs an
agreement with the France instead.
1296 March 26th, Balliol forces attack
Carlisle Castle in the northwest of England
but fail to capture the large fortress.
1296 March 30th, forces of Edward I
massacre most of the population of Berwick in
1296 April, Edward I forces defeat Scots
forces at Dunbar and imprison Balliol in the
Tower of London.
1297 11th September, William Wallace lead
about 15,000 Scots against an English army,
about 30,000 strong, that were on route to
the English held Stirling Castle. The Scots
won that battle by making the most of the
boggy terrain and old narrow Stirling
1298, William Wallace’s army was defeated
by a massive English army led by Edward I at
Falkirk. Wallace escaped that battle only to
be captured in Glasgow 5th August 1305, and
executed in London 18 days later.
1314, Robert the Bruce's brother, Edward
Bruce, besieged Stirling Castle that was
under the control of English forces.
1314 June, an English army travels north
to confront the Scots forces besieging
1314 June 23rd, the Scots army led by
Robert the Bruce, engaged the English army
led by King Edward II (son of Edward I who
died in 1307) in the area of Bannockburn,
about 2 miles south of Stirling Castle.
The Scots army was said to be around 7,000
men, and the English army about 12,000
The Bruce had selected this area for the
battle as it was narrow with waterways,
woodland and hills, an ideal area for a
smaller army to have a chance in defeating a
The Scots set about rearranging the
terrain by blocking roads and digging pits
with spikes to help combat the large number
of English cavalry.
The Scots also trained with schiltroms,
large circles of men with 15ft pikes, and had
positioned themselves where trees gave cover
from where English archers could be
On the first day of the battle, the
English Knights charged the Scots schiltroms
on a number of occasions, each time resulting
in a large number of English casualties.
During a lull in the battle, The Bruce
took a pony down close to the English forces
to view their strength. A young English
Knight named Henry De Bohun recognized The
Bruce, so set off on his heavy horse with his
lance aimed at the Scots King.
The Bruce held his ground until the last
second, then turned his pony to the side,
stood up on his stirrups, and split open the
young knight's head with a mighty blow from
his battle axe.
The following day, the English cavalry
began another series of charges at the Scots
schiltroms. These attacks again led to a
large number of English casualties.
The English archers managed to get into a
good position during the cavalry attacks, but
began hitting their own knights as well as
Before the Scots could advance to finnish
off the English, The Bruce gave the order for
his cavalry to charge out woodlands to
scatter the English archers.
With the English archers fleeing the Scots
cavalry, the English cavalry retreating, and
the Scots forces pursuing the English troops,
Edward II was led from the battlefield for
his own safety.
The English forces that survived, set off
back to England.
The Scots soon took control of Stirling
Castle and demolished its defenses so the
English could not use it as a stronghold
The Scotland / England war continued for a
further 14 years, until the treaty of
Edinburgh was signed on the 17th March 1328.
The Bruce then became king of an independent
The Bruce died at Cardross, probably from
leprosy 7th June 1329.
1932, the National Trust for Scotland
acquired land at the Battle of
1960 and 1965, more land was acquired for
the creation of a visitor centre and
1960s, the original Visitor Centre is
1964, the Memorial and statue of King
Robert the Bruce are built.
2014, the new Visitor Centre is built.